Article Index
Foliar Nutrition
Reasons for deficiency
Plant Nutrients
Requirements & signs of deficiencies
Symptoms of nutrient deficiencies
Trace element deficiency table
Influence of the least nutrient
The influence of pH
The effect of pH
Absorbition of nutrients IONS
All Pages

Requirements and signs of deficiencies

The following table outlines the plant requirements for trace elements and the problems that arise when these are lacking. Each of these seven essential micro-nutrients are found in TRELMIX TRACE ELEMENT SOLUTION in the percentages shown.

BORON(B) 0.111%

  • Boron is essential for reproduction and thus seed and fruit set.
  • Healthy root growth and the root response to gravity are dependent on Boron.
  • Sufficient Boron enables plants to become resistant to diseases of many types.
A lack of boron in a plant results in:
  • Poor flowering and seed set.
  • The deterioration of root and stem growing points.
  • Stunted roots.
  • Wrinkled leaves.
  • "Hard fruit disease" (especially citrus).
The crops most susceptible to a deficiency are: cabbages, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, carrots, radish and citrus.

COPPER(Cu) 0.319%

  • Copper is essential for plant respiration and photosynthesis.
  • Greening of leaves.
  • Development of flowers and thus seed and fruit production.
  • Copper is required to control nitrogen fixation by legumes, and iron uptake by all plants.
  • Copper will also help prevent wilting of leaves in dry periods.
A lack of copper in a plant results in:
  • Poor leaf colour and deformed leaves and flowers.
  • Fruit quality and production are adversely affected.
  • Wilted leaves and leaves will suffer from "treatment illness".
  • Citrus fruit developing thick oily skins with gum spots.
  • Trees develop abnormal shoots with skew leaves.
  • Up to 50% reduction in yield.

IRON(Fe) 2.260%

  • Iron is needed in large quantities to produce chlorophyll and thus green leaves. Iron is therefore essential for photosynthesis and thus all growth.
A lack of iron in a plant results in:
  • Chlorotic (yellow to white) leaves.
  • The veins may remain dark green.
  • Petioles of tomato plants become purple.
  • Stunted growth with a drop (up to 70%) in crop yield.

MANGANESE(Mn) 0.290%

  • Manganese is essential for photosynthesis and in particular, sugar production.
  • Manganese also controls the uptake of other ions and nutrients from the soil.
A lack of manganese in a plant results in:
  • Chlorosis (yellowing) of the leaves.
  • Leaves becoming spotted (marbled effect).
  • Reduced growth and flowering.
  • Cucumber, beans and many ornamentals are especially susceptible to Manganese deficiency.


  • Molybdenum is needed for sexual reproduction and the development of embryos.
  • Molybdenum is also necessary for the production of proteins (thus increasing the protein yield of a crop) and vitamins, in particular, vitamin C.
  • Molybdenum is required for chlorophyll production and thus the greening of leaves.
  • Molybdenum is essential for nitrogen fixation by legumes and for protection against aluminium toxicity in all plants.
  • A seed soak will ensure even germination in the field (e.g. maize)
A lack of molybdenum in a plant results in:
  • Yellow/orange spots on the leaves between the veins.
  • A reduced number of flowers which are small and sometimes do not open.
  • Deformed reproductive organs, thus fruit and crops suffer poor yields.
  • "Whiptail leaf symptom" in cabbages, etc.
  • "Yellow spot" disease in citrus.
  • Cabbages, cauliflower, broccoli and all legumes are most susceptible to deficiency.
  • Reduction in yield of crops (up to 80%).

ZINC(Zn) 0.244%

  • Zinc is essential for pollen grains and thus fertilization and fruiting.
  • Zinc increases sugar production and is essential for the production of hormones.
  • Zinc deficiencies are very common (especially in citrus) and are often caused by lime and phosphate applications.
  • Poor growth with short stems and internodes and small, curled leaves.
  • Flowers are small in size.

MAGNESIUM(Mg) 0.031%

  • Magnesium is the most important component of chlorophyll ( green pigment) and thus vital for photosynthesis.
  • Magnesium helps to control enzyme operations.
  • Magnesium is important for oil production (e.g. avocado)
A lack of magnesium in a plant results in:
  • Chlorosis (yellowing) between the leaf veins.
  • In some species, the lower leaves develop a purple colour preceding death.
  • Flower size and number is reduced.
  • Magnesium deficiency is common after heavy nitrogen, potassium or lime application.
  • Very common in tomatoes and cucumbers.